In economic evaluations, two or more alternative treatments are compared in order to assess their cost effectiveness. The evaluations may for instance describe whether a new treatment that is more effective than an existing treatment is cost effective. The results are often presented as a cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained (see the box on the right hand side). If the cost per QALY gained is considered to be reasonable in relation to the severity of the condition, the new treatment is deemed cost effective.
A societal perspective is applied
Economic evaluations can be performed from various perspectives. In a health care perspective, only costs and effects directly linked to the health care system are taken into account. A societal perspective also includes costs and effects outside the health care sector. In TLV´s health economic evaluations a societal perspective is applied.
Cost-effectiveness is weighed together with other principles
In Sweden, priority-setting decisions in the healthcare sector are based on an ethical platform with three basic principles. The three principles are:
- The human dignity principle: All individuals have equal value and rights regardless of their personal characteristics s and social function.
- The needs-solidarity principle: Health care resources should be allocated according to need (first be utilized where the needs are the largest).
- The cost-effectiveness principle: In choosing between different services or treatments one needs to strive for a reasonable relationship between costs and effects, measured in terms of improved health and quality of life.